Природоохранный статус гнездящихся орлов во Франции

Hugo Pontalier, Patrick Boudarel, Marie-Françoise Canevet, Edouard Lhomer, Dominique Michelat, Cécile Ponchon, Christian Riols, Olivier Scher

Аннотация


Во Франции гнездятся 7 видов орлов: беркут (Aquila chrysaetos), малый подорлик (Aquila [Clanga] pomarina), ястребиный орёл (Aquila fasciata), орёл-карлик (Hieraaetus pennatus), змееяд (Circaetus gallicus), орлан-белохвост (Haliaeetus albicilla) и скопа (Pandion haliaetus). Популяции всех видов увеличились с начала 2000-х годов, и их численность на гнездовании оценивается в следующих размерах: 2500–3300 пар в2012 г. – змееяд, 585–810 пар в2012 г. – орёл-карлик, 450–500 пар в 2012 году – беркут, 80–90 пар в2015 г. – скопа, 33 пары в2016 г. – ястребиный орёл и по 1 паре в2018 г. – малый подорлик и орлан-белохвост. Эти два последних вида стали новыми гнездящимися видами в 2003 и 2011 гг. соответственно. Производительность, выраженная как число слётков на пару в год, оценивается в среднем: 0,57 – змееяд, 1,56 – скопа, 1,18 – ястребиный орёл, 0,82 – малый подорлик, 1,1 – орлан-белохвост, 0,26–0,70 – беркут. Основные угрозы хищникам на гнездовании связаны с ухудшением качества среды обитания (в результате нарушения и утраты мест обитания, а также ветровых электростанций) и увеличением смертности (на ЛЭП, по причине браконьерства и в результате отравления).


Ключевые слова


пернатые хищники; хищные птицы; орлы; охрана; Франция; продуктивность; мониторинг; угрозы; змееяд; беркут; малый подорлик; ястребиный орёл; орёл-карлик; орлан-белохвост; скопа

Литература


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19074/1814-8654-2019-38-93-108

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(c) 2019 Hugo Pontalier, Patrick Boudarel, Marie-Françoise Canevet, Edouard Lhomer, Dominique Michelat, Cécile Ponchon, Christian Riols, Olivier Scher

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